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Birth of Frederick the Wise

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Birth of Geert Groote

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Birth of Girolamo Savonarola

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Birth of Jan Hus

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Birth of Hadrian VI

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Unam Sanctam

The 1302 papal bull Unam Sanctam was the culmination of the medieval conflict between church and state and declared the unrestricted authority of the papacy over Christendom. The relation of the spiritual, or ecclesiastical, and secular, or temporal, authorities had … Continue reading

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Fourth Lateran Council

Pope Innocent III convened a general council in 1215 in St. John Lateran comprised of clerics from throughout Western Christendom, a council that would become an object of criticism for the Protestant reformers. Prior to 1215, three previous councils had … Continue reading

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Beginning of the Great Western Schism

The outbreak of the Great Western Schism in 1378 was the direct result of the Avignon papacy preceding it for nearly seventy years. From 1309 to 1377, papacy, curia, and eventually the papal archives relocated to the French city of … Continue reading

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Pope Pius II issues bull Execrabilis condemning conciliarism

The bull Execrabilis, issued by Pope Pius II four days after the Congress of Mantua in 1460, symbolically ended the conciliar movement of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The high point of the late medieval conciliar movement was the Council … Continue reading

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Council of Trent Convenes

Despite the defeat of the conciliar party at Basel when emperor Frederick III signed the 1448 Concordat of Vienna that affirmed his support of the papacy, calls for a council to reform the church “in head and members”-beginning with the … Continue reading

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