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Birth of Philipp of Hesse

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Philipp I, Landgrave of Hesse

If religious and political concerns were often inseparable during the Protestant Reformation, then they were borderline indistinct in the life and career of Philipp of Hesse. Known most prominently as the Landgrave of Hesse, or as Philipp the Magnanimous, he … Continue reading

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Birth of Hadrian VI

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Pope Hadrian VI

Hadrian VI proved to the last non-Italian pope until the twentieth century, but his place in the Reformation is most noteworthy because of both the high hopes for his tenure and its remarkable brevity. Born Adrian Florensz on March 2, … Continue reading

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Charles V

Born in 1500, Charles I of Spain was successor of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty and ruled the majority of Europe during the Reformation as Emperor Charles V. On the side of his father, Philip of Burgundy, were the Habsburg Austrian … Continue reading

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Imperial troops sack Rome

The sack of Rome in 1527 was an unintended consequence of the ongoing rivalry between Emperor Charles V, of the Habsburg dynasty, and the French king Francis I, of the Valois line. Francis and Charles had been at war over … Continue reading

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Charles I of Spain elected emperor

Charles I, King of Spain, was elected to the vacancy left by the death of his grandfather, Maximilian. The Holy Roman Empire had its roots in the Carolingian kingdom of the eighth century and since the thirteenth century the right … Continue reading

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